Combinatorial gene therapy accelerates bone regeneration: non-viral dual delivery of VEGF and BMP2 in a collagen-nanohydroxyapatite scaffold.

Vascularization and bone repair are accelerated by a series of gene-activated scaffolds delivering both an angiogenic and an osteogenic gene. Stem cell-mediated osteogenesis in vitro, in addition to increased vascularization and bone repair by host cells in vivo, is enhanced using all systems while the use of the nanohydroxyapatite vector to deliver both genes markedly enhances bone healing.