Influence of shear stress in perfusion bioreactor cultures for the development of three-dimensional bone tissue constructs: a review.
Bone tissue engineering aims to generate clinically applicable bone graft substitutes in an effort to ease the demands and reduce the potential risks associated with traditional autograft and allograft bone replacement procedures. Biomechanical stimuli play an important role under physiologically relevant conditions in the normal formation, development, and homeostasis of bone tissue--predominantly, strain (predicted levels in vivo for humans <2000>με) caused by physical deformation, and fluid shear stress (0.8-3 Pa), generated by interstitial fluid movement through lacunae caused by compression and tension under loading. Therefore, in vitro bone tissue cultivation strategies seek to incorporate biochemical stimuli in an effort to create more physiologically relevant constructs for grafting. This review is focused on collating information pertaining to the relationship between fluid shear stress, cellular deformation, and osteogenic differentiation, providing further insight into the optimal culture conditions for the creation of bone tissue substitutes.