The HeartQoL: Part I. Development of a new core health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with ischemic heart disease.

Background: Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important in improving the quality of patient care.Methods: The HeartQoL Project, with cross-sectional and longitudinal phases, was designed to develop a core ischemic heart disease (IHD) specific HRQL questionnaire, to be called the HeartQoL, for patients with angina, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic heart failure. Patients completed a battery of questionnaires and Mokken scaling analysis was used to identify items in the HeartQoL questionnaire.Results: We enrolled 6384 patients (angina, n = 2111, 33.1%; MI, n = 2351, 36.8%; heart failure, n = 1922, 30.1%) across 22 countries and 15 languages. The HeartQoL questionnaire comprises 14-items with 10-item physical and 4-item emotional subscales which are scored from 0 (poor HRQL) to 3 (better HRQL) with a global score if needed. The mean baseline HeartQoL global score was 2.2 (±0.5) in the total group and was different (p < 0.001) by diagnosis (MI, 2.4 ± 0.5; angina, 2.2 ± 0.6; and heart failure, 2.1 ± 0.6).Conclusion: The HeartQoL questionnaire, with global and subscale scores, has the potential to allow clinicians and researchers to (a) assess baseline HRQL, (b) make between-diagnosis comparisons of HRQL, and (c) evaluate change in HRQL in patients with angina, MI, or heart failure with a single IHD-specific HRQL instrument.