Candida species in cystic fibrosis: A road less travelled.

Candida species are isolated with high frequency from cystic fibrosis patients, yet their definitive role in the disease remains unclear. Previously considered to have minimal inherent virulence owing to their commensal ability, the last decade has heralded an increasing recognition of Candida infection among patients with cystic fibrosis. What has been more recently hypothesized is that the organism possesses virulence factors that play diverse roles at different body sites during varied stages of an infection. Currently, limited data is accessible in the area of cystic fibrosis. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of Candida species in cystic fibrosis as it is currently understood including the common local and systemic infections observed in clinical practice. The uncertain role of airway colonization and insight into emerging fields such as Candida-bacterial interactions are also addressed. Finally, we outline the current understanding of the innate, cellular and humoral immune responses associated with this genus which has been the major focus of work performed to date.