Differential Predictive Value of Depressive Versus Anxiety Symptoms in the Prediction of 8-Year Mortality After Acute Coronary Syndrome.
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ObjectiveBoth depression and anxiety have been associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, certain symptoms and how they are measured may be more important than others. We investigated three different scales to determine their predictive validity.MethodsPatients with ACS (N = 598) completed either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-A, HADS-D; n = 316) or the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (n = 282). Their all-cause mortality status was assessed at 8 years.ResultsDuring follow-up, 20% (121/598) of participants died. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that the HADS-D was predictive of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.19), and this association remained significant after adjustment for major clinical/demographic factors, whereas the HADS-A (HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.85-1.09) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.91-1.08) were not. The following depression items from the HADS-D predicted mortality: "I still enjoy the things I used to enjoy" (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82), "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11-1.96), "I feel as if I am slowed down" (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.24-2.22), and "I look forward with enjoyment to things" (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.72).ConclusionsDepressive symptoms related to lack of enjoyment or pleasure and physical or cognitive slowing, as measured by the HADS-D, predicted all-cause mortality at 8 years ACS patients, whereas other depressive and anxiety symptoms did not. Whether symptoms of distress predict prognosis in ACS seems to be dependent on the measures and items used.