Sharpening nature's tools for efficient tuberculosis control: A review of the potential role and development of host-directed therapies and strategies for targeted respiratory delivery.

Centuries since it was first described, tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health issue. Despite ongoing holistic measures implemented by health authorities and a number of new oral treatments reaching the market, there is still a need for an advanced, efficient TB treatment. An adjunctive, host-directed therapy designed to enhance endogenous pathways and hence compliment current regimens could be the answer. The integration of drug repurposing, including synthetic and naturally occurring compounds, with a targeted drug delivery platform is an attractive development option. In order for a new anti-tubercular treatment to be produced in a timely manner, a multidisciplinary approach should be taken from the outset including stakeholders from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory bodies keeping the patient as the key focus. Pre-clinical considerations for the development of a targeted host-directed therapy are discussed here.