Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
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2D and 3D in-vitro models for mimicking cardiac physiology

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-09-15, 16:19 authored by Gerges Abdelsayed, Danish Ali, Andrew Malone, Jemil Saidi, Manoj Myneni, Keshava Rajagopal, Faisal H Cheema, Aamir HameedAamir Hameed
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a huge economic burden on the healthcare system globally. Both pharmacological and device based treatment options have emerged over the years, however, it is still a ‘holy grail’ to effectively treat some cardiovascular conditions, for example, heart failure. Any treatment option whether it is drug therapy or a device therapy, has to go through a rigorous regulatory approval process. This requires robust pre-clinical research and clinical trial results. In order to proceed to the clinical trials, pre-clinical research is very important and may take methodologies which are at the interface of biology and engineering, for example, in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo models. This paper focusses on the 2D and 3D in-vitro models to mimic the pathophysiology of a specific cardiovascular disease and their advantages and limitations.



The original article is available at

Published Citation

Abdelsayed G, et al. 2D and 3D in-vitro models for mimicking cardiac physiology. Applications in Engineering Science. 2022;12:100115.

Publication Date

28 August 2022


  • Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine
  • Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG)
  • Undergraduate Research

Research Area

  • Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine
  • Health Professions Education
  • Surgical Science and Practice


Elsevier BV


  • Published Version (Version of Record)