Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
3D_Printed_Scaffolds_Incorporated_with_Platelet-Rich_Plasma_Show_Enhanced_Angiogenic_Potential_while_not_Inducing_Fibrosis_Ronaldo_doAmaral_(1).pdf (1.91 MB)

3D printed scaffolds incorporated with platelet-rich plasma show enhanced angiogenic potential while not inducing fibrosis

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-07-18, 12:44 authored by Rita Ibanez, Ronaldo do Amaral, Christopher SimpsonChristopher Simpson, Sarah M. Casey, Rui L. Reis, Alexandra P. Marques, Ciara MurphyCiara Murphy, Fergal O'BrienFergal O'Brien

Successful therapeutic strategies for wound healing rely on proper vascularization while inhibiting fibrosis. However, scaffolds designed for skin tissue engineering generally lack the biochemical cues that can enhance their vascularization without inducing fibrosis. Therefore, the objective of this work is to incorporate platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a natural source of angiogenic growth factors, into a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel, yielding a bioink that can subsequently be used to 3D print a novel regenerative scaffold with defined architecture for skin wound healing. A PRP-activated bioink is successfully 3D printed, and the resulting scaffolds present similar structural, rheological, and mechanical properties compared to GelMA-only scaffolds. Furthermore, 3D printed PRP-activated scaffolds facilitate controlled release of PRP-derived growth factors for up to 14 days, presenting superior angiogenic potential in vitro (e.g., tubulogenesis assay) and in vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane) compared to GelMA-only scaffolds, while not inducing a myofibroblastic phenotype in fibroblasts (e.g., α-smooth muscle actin expression). This disruptive technology offers the opportunity for a patient's autologous growth factors to be incorporated into a tailored 3D-printed scaffold in theatre prior to implantation, as part of a single-stage procedure, and has potential in other tissue engineering applications in which enhanced vascularization with limited fibrosis is desired.


Science Foundation Ireland under the M-ERA.NET program, Transnational Call 2016 (17/US/3437; Ireland)

EU BlueHuman Interreg Atlantic Area Project (grant EAPA_151/2016)

Science Foundation Ireland, through the Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER; grants 12/RC/2278 and 12/RC/2278_P2)



This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Ibanez, R.I.R., do,R.J F.C., Simpson,C.R., Casey,S.M., Reis,R.L., Marques,A.P., Murphy,C.M., O'Brien,F.J., 3D Printed Scaffolds Incorporated with Platelet-Rich Plasma Show Enhanced Angiogenic Potential while not Inducing Fibrosis. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2022, 32, 2109915., which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.

Published Citation

Ibanez, R, et al. 3D printed scaffolds incorporated with platelet-rich plasma show enhanced angiogenic potential while not inducing fibrosis. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 32, 2109915.

Publication Date

23 November 2021


  • Amber (Advanced Material & Bioengineering Research) Centre
  • Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG)
  • Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine

Research Area

  • Immunity, Infection and Inflammation
  • Cancer
  • Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine
  • Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences




  • Accepted Version (Postprint)