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A Best Evidence in Medical Education systematic review to determine the most effective teaching methods that develop reflection in medical students: BEME guide No. 51

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Introduction: Reflection is thought to be an essential skill for physicians. Although much has been written about it, there is little concurrence about how to best teach reflection in medical education. The aim of this review was to determine: (i) which educational interventions are being used to develop reflection, (ii) how is reflection being assessed, and (iii) what are the most effective interventions.

Methods: Inclusion criteria comprised: (i) undergraduate medical students, (ii) a teaching intervention to develop reflection, and (iii) assessment of the intervention. A review protocol was developed and nine databases were searched. Screening, data extraction, and analysis procedures were performed in duplicate. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis approach was performed for the study analysis.

Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions in these studies had at least of two of the following components related to reflection: (i) introduction, (ii) trigger, (iii) writing, (iv) guidelines, (v) small group discussion, (vi) tutor and (vii) feedback. Three validated rubrics were used to assess reflective writing in these studies.

Conclusions: The strongest evidence from studies in this review indicates that guidelines for, and feedback on, reflective writing improve student reflection.

History

Comments

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Medical Teacher on January 2019, available online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1505037

Published Citation

Uygur J et al. A Best Evidence in Medical Education systematic review to determine the most effective teaching methods that develop reflection in medical students: BEME guide No. 51. Med Teach. 2019;41(1):3-16.

Publication Date

11 January 2019

PubMed ID

30634872

Department/Unit

  • General Practice
  • Health Professions Education Centre

Research Area

  • Population Health and Health Services

Publisher

Informa Healthcare

Version

  • Accepted Version (Postprint)