An inexpensive 3D printed mouse model of successful, complication-free long bone distraction osteogenesis
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is used for skeletal defects; however, up to 50% of cases exhibit complications. Previous mouse models of long bone DO have been anecdotally hampered by postoperative complications, expense, and availability. To improve clinical techniques, cost-effective, reliable animal models are needed. Our focus was to develop a new mouse tibial distractor, hypothesized to result in successful, complication-free DO.
Methods: A lightweight tibial distractor was developed using CAD and 3D printing. The device was fixed to the tibia of C57Bl/6J mice prior to osteotomy. Postoperatively, mice underwent 5 days latency, 10 days distraction (0.15 mm every 12 hours), and 28 days consolidation. Bone regeneration was examined on postoperative day 43 using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Movat's modified pentachrome staining on histology (mineralized volume fraction and pixels, respectively). Costs were recorded. We compared cohorts of 11 mice undergoing sham, DO, or acute lengthening (distractor acutely lengthened 3.0 mm).
Results: The histological bone regenerate was significantly increased in DO (1,879,257 ± 155,415 pixels) compared to acute lengthening (32847 ± 1589 pixels) (P < 0.0001). The mineralized volume fraction (bone/total tissue volume) of the regenerate was significantly increased in DO (0.9 ± 0.1) compared to acute lengthening (0.7 ± 0.1) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in bone regenerate between DO and sham. The distractor was relatively low cost ($11), with no complications.
Conclusions: Histology and µCT analysis confirmed that the proposed tibial DO model resulted in successful bone formation. Our model is cost-effective and reproducible, enabling implementation in genetically dissectible transgenic mice.
Oak Foundation and the Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine
Plastic Surgery Research Council Research Fellowship Grant, the Stanford University Tissue Engineering and Center of Excellence Research Grant
American Society of Maxillofacial Surgery Research Grant
Stanford University Tissue Engineering and Center of Excellence Research Grant
NIH Grant R01 DE026730 and R01 DE027323
NIH Grant 5T32GM119995-02
Stanford University Medical Scientist Training Program grant T32-GM007365
NIH S10 grant 1S10OD02349701
CommentsThe original article is available at https://journals.lww.com/
Published CitationTevlin R. et al. An inexpensive 3D printed mouse model of successful, complication-free long bone distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2023;11(2):e4674.
Publication Date13 February 2023
- Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
- Published Version (Version of Record)