C3d elicits neutrophil degranulation and decreases endothelial cell migration, with implications for patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is characterized by increased risk for emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vasculitis, and wound-healing impairment. Neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of AATD. Dysregulated complement activation in AATD results in increased plasma levels of C3d. The current study investigated the impact of C3d on circulating neutrophils. Blood was collected from AATD (n = 88) or non-AATD COPD patients (n = 10) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 40). Neutrophils were challenged with C3d, and degranulation was assessed by Western blotting, ELISA, or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate assays. Ex vivo, C3d levels were increased in plasma (p < 0.0001) and on neutrophil plasma membranes (p = 0.038) in AATD compared to HC. C3d binding to CR3 receptors triggered primary (p = 0.01), secondary (p = 0.004), and tertiary (p = 0.018) granule release and increased CXCL8 secretion (p = 0.02). Ex vivo plasma levels of bactericidal-permeability-increasing-protein (p = 0.02), myeloperoxidase (p < 0.0001), and lactoferrin (p < 0.0001) were significantly increased in AATD patients. In endothelial cell scratch wound assays, C3d significantly decreased cell migration (p < 0.0001), an effect potentiated by neutrophil degranulated proteins (p < 0.0001). In summary, AATD patients had increased C3d in plasma and on neutrophil membranes and, together with neutrophil-released granule enzymes, reduced endothelial cell migration and wound healing, with potential implications for AATD-related vasculitis.
US Alpha-1 Foundation (Grant # 615848)
CommentsThe original article is available at https://www.mdpi.com/
Published CitationFee LT. et al. C3d elicits neutrophil degranulation and decreases endothelial cell migration, with implications for patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Biomedicines. 2021;9(12):1925.
Publication Date16 December 2021
- Beaumont Hospital
- Undergraduate Research
- Published Version (Version of Record)