Development and validation of the health belief model questionnaire to promote smoking cessation for nasopharyngeal cancer prevention: a cross-sectional study
Objective: Lifestyle-induced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a serious but preventable risk factor. This study serves to develop and validate a questionnaire that aims to predict the health behavioural intention on smoking cessation in Sarawak, Malaysia using the Health Belief Model (HBM).
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Urban and suburban areas in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Participants: The preliminary items of the instrument were developed after extensive literature review. The instrument was translated into the Malay language using the forward-backwards method before commencing with the content validity by a panel of 10 experts. Face validity was done both quantitatively and qualitatively by 10 smokers. The construct validity of the instrument was evaluated through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A total of 100 smokers participated in phase 1 for EFA, while 171 smokers participated in phase 2 for CFA. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficients to evaluate the reliability.
Results: In the exploratory stage, the factor loading of each item remained within the acceptable threshold. The final revised CFA yielded appropriate fit of the seven-factor model with the following model fit indices: χ2=641.705; df=500; p<0.001; comparative fit index=0.953; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.948; root mean square error of approximation=0.041. Satisfactory convergent validity and divergent validity were shown, with the exception of one pairwise construct. The internal reliability of these scales was above the desirable threshold, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.705 to 0.864 and 0.838 to 0.889 in phases 1 and 2, respectively.
Conclusions: The study substantiated the instrument to be valid and reliable for predicting smokers' health behavioural intention to reduce cancer risk. The instrument is made up of 34 items, categorised into two sections, six HBM constructs and health behavioural intention. The instrument can be utilised for other smoking cessation-related cancers in different at-risk populations.
CommentsThe original article is available at https://bmjopen.bmj.com/
Published CitationKueh MTW, Rahim FF, Rashid A. Development and validation of the health belief model questionnaire to promote smoking cessation for nasopharyngeal cancer prevention: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2022;12(9):e057552.
Publication Date14 September 2022
PublisherBMJ Publishing Group Ltd
- Published Version (Version of Record)