Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Examining the Clinical Prognosis of Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to Intensive Care Units. A Nationwide Saudi Study.pdf (416.14 kB)

Examining the clinical prognosis of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units: a nationwide Saudi study

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-02-07, 10:12 authored by Abbas Al Mutair, Alyaa Elhazmi, Saad Alhumaid, Gasmelseed Y Ahmad, Ali A Rabaan, Mohammed A Alghdeer, Hiba Chagla, Raghavendra Tirupathi, Amit Sharma, Kuldeep Dhama, Khulud Alsalman, Zainab Alalawi, Ziyad Aljofan, Alya Al Mutairi, Mohammed Alomari, Mansour Awad, Awad Al-Omari

Background and Objectives:

COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by a single-stranded RNA coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to conduct a nationwide multicenter study to determine the characteristics and the clinical prognostic outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).

Materials and Methods:

This is a nationwide cohort retrospective study conducted in twenty Saudi hospitals.


An analysis of 1470 critically ill COVID-19 patients demonstrated that the majority of patients were male with a mean age of 55.9 ± 15.1 years. Most of our patients presented with a shortness of breath (SOB) (81.3%), followed by a fever (73.7%) and a cough (65.1%). Diabetes and hypertension were the most common comorbidities in the study (52.4% and 46.0%, respectively). Multiple complications were observed substantially more among non-survivors. The length and frequency of mechanical ventilation use were significantly greater (83%) in the non-survivors compared with the survivors (31%). The mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 6 ± 5. The overall mortality rate of the cohort associated with patients that had diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease was 41.8%.


Age; a pre-existing medical history of hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease; smoking cigarettes; a BMI ≥ 29; a long mechanical ventilation and ICU stay; the need of ventilatory support; a high SOFA score; fungal co-infections and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use were key clinical characteristics that predicted a high mortality in our population.



The original article is available at

Published Citation

Al Mutair A. et al. Examining the clinical prognosis of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units: a nationwide Saudi study. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021;57(9):878

Publication Date

26 August 2021

PubMed ID



  • RCSI Bahrain
  • Undergraduate Research




  • Published Version (Version of Record)