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Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 1 caused by a novel heterozygous missense variant in the CaSR gene, p(His41Arg): two case reports

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posted on 2023-01-13, 15:25 authored by Aoife Courtney, Arnold HillArnold Hill, Diarmuid SmithDiarmuid Smith, Amar AghaAmar Agha

Background: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) is a rare, inherited disorder of extracellular calcium sensing. It is clinically characterised by mild to moderate parathyroid hormone dependent hypercalcaemia, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and a normal to reduced urinary calcium excretion in spite of high serum calcium.

Case presentation: We report two cases of FHH in a family caused by a novel pathogenic missense variant in the CaSR gene, p. His41Arg. Case 1, describes a 17 year old female with no significant past medical history, admitted with acute appendicitis requiring laparoscopic appendectomy and reporting a six month history of polydipsia. Routine investigations were significant for hypercalcaemia, corrected calcium 3.19 mmol/L (2.21-2.52mmol/L), elevated parathyroid hormone of 84pg/ml (15-65pg/ml) and a low 24-hour urine calcium of 0.75mmol/24 (2.50-7.50mmol/24). She was initially managed with intravenous fluids and Zolendronic acid with temporary normalisation of calcium though ultimately required commencement of Cinacalcet 30 mg daily for persistent symptomatic hypercalcaemia. Genetic analysis was subsequently positive for the above variant. Case 2, a 50-year-old female, was referred to the endocrine outpatient clinic for the management of type 2 diabetes and reported a longstanding history of asymptomatic hypercalcaemia which had not been investigated previously. Investigation revealed hypercalcaemia; corrected calcium of 2.6 mmol/L (reference range: 2.21-2.52 mmol/L); PTH of 53.7ng/L (reference range: 15-65 ng/L) and an elevated 24-hour urine calcium of 10 mmol/24 (2.50-7.50 mmol/24hr) with positive genetic analysis and is managed conservatively. Despite sharing this novel mutation, these cases have different phenotypes and their natural history is yet to be determined. Two further relatives are currently undergoing investigation for hypercalcaemia and the family have been referred for genetic counselling.

Conclusion: Accurate diagnosis of FHH and differentiation from classic primary hyperparathyroidism can be challenging, however it is essential to avoid unnecessary investigations and parathyroid surgery. Genetic analysis may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of FHH in light of the biochemical heterogeneity in this population and overlap with other causes of hypercalcaemia.

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The original article is available at https://bmcendocrdisord.biomedcentral.com/

Published Citation

Courtney A, Hill A, Smith D, Agha A. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 1 caused by a novel heterozygous missense variant in the CaSR gene, p(His41Arg): two case reports. BMC Endocr Disord. 2022;22(1):324.

Publication Date

19 December 2022

PubMed ID

36536367

Department/Unit

  • Beaumont Hospital
  • Surgery
  • Medicine

Publisher

Biomed Central

Version

  • Published Version (Version of Record)