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How to design and evaluate interventions to improve outcomes for patients with multimorbidity

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journal contribution
posted on 25.03.2022, 14:06 authored by Susan SmithSusan Smith, Elizabeth Bayliss, Stewart Mercer, Jane Gunn, Moogens Vestergaard, Sally Wyke, Chris Salisbury, Martin Fortin

Multimorbidity is a major challenge for patients and healthcare providers. The limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions for people with multimorbidity means that there is a need for much more research and trials of potential interventions. Here we present a consensus view from a group of international researchers working to improve care for people with multimorbidity to guide future studies of interventions. We suggest that there is a need for careful consideration of whom to include, how to target interventions that address specific problems and that do not add to treatment burden, and selecting outcomes that matter both to patients and the healthcare system. Innovative design of these interventions will be necessary as many will be introduced in service settings and it will be important to ensure methodological rigour, relevance to service delivery, and generalizability across healthcare systems.


Susan Smith’s research is funded in part through the Health Research Board Primary Care Research Centre in Ireland. Martin Fortin holds a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Applied Chair in Health Services and Policy Research on Chronic Diseases in Primary Care and is a Canada Research Chair in Health Services Research. Elizabeth Bayliss is supported in part by funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Multiple Chronic Conditions Research Network grants R21HS019520 and R01 HS018404-01. Mogens Vestergaard is supported in part by an unrestricted grant from the Lundbeck foundation.



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Published Citation

Smith SM, Bayliss EA, Mercer SW, Gunn J, Vestergaard M, Wyke S, Salisbury C, Fortin M. How to design and evaluate interventions to improve outcomes for patients with multimorbidity. Journal of Comorbidity. 2013;3:10-17.

Publication Date



  • HRB Centre for Primary Care Research
  • General Practice