Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
2021 Ozores Diez H2Open In vitro toxicity studies of novel solar water disinfection.pdf (608.69 kB)

In vitro toxicity studies of novel solar water disinfection reactors using the E-screen bioassay and the Ames test

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-12-22, 11:03 authored by Paloma Ozores Diez, M Inmaculada Polo-López, Azahara Martínez-García, Monique Waso, Brandon Reyneke, Wesaal Khan, Kevin McGuiganKevin McGuigan, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Rosaleen Devery, Bríd Quilty
Abstract Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a cost-effective point of use method for disinfecting water, usually in a 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle. To increase the volume of water disinfected, three novel transparent reactors were developed using PET in 25 L transparent jerrycans, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in tubular solar reactors capable of delivering >20 L of water and polypropylene (PP) in 20 L buckets. In vitro bioassays were used to investigate any toxic substances leached from the plastic reactors into disinfected water as a result of exposure to sunshine for up to 9 months. The Ames test was used to test for mutagenicity and the E-screen bioassay to test for estrogenicity. No mutagenicity was detected in any sample and no estrogenicity was found in the SODIS treated water produced by the PMMA reactors or the PP buckets. While water disinfected using the PET reactors showed no estrogenicity following exposure to the sun for 3 and 6 months, estrogenicity was detected following 9 months' exposure to sunlight; however levels detected were within the acceptable daily intake for 17β-estradiol (E2) of up to 50 ng/kg body weight/day.


European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement no. 688928 (WATERSPOUTT H2020-Water -5c)



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Published Citation

Diez PO. et al. In vitro toxicity studies of novel solar water disinfection reactors using the E-screen bioassay and the Ames test. H2Open Journal. 2021;4(1):204-215

Publication Date

31 August 2021


  • Physiology and Medical Physics

Research Area

  • Population Health and Health Services


IWA Publishing


  • Published Version (Version of Record)