Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

File(s) under embargo





until file(s) become available

Incorporation of hydroxyapatite into collagen scaffolds enhances the therapeutic efficacy of rhBMP-2 in a weight-bearing femoral defect model

journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 15:19 authored by William A Lackington, Dominic Gehweiler, Ivan Zderic, Dirk Nehrbass, Stephan Zeiter, Arlyng Gonzalez VazquezArlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Fergal O'BrienFergal O'Brien, Martin J Stoddart, Keith Thompson
Traditional methods to promote bone healing, such as autologous bone grafting, and therapeutic strategies involving recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), such as BMP-2 and BMP-7, have been associated with performance limitations and dose-related safety concerns, respectively. Thus, there is an unmet need for osteoinductive bone graft substitutes that can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of rhBMP-2 and facilitate dose-reduction approaches. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of rhBMP-2 delivered using a collagen-only scaffold (CO) (representative of clinical standards), a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold (CHA), and a thermoresponsive hyaluronic acid hydrogel doped with gelatin and laminin (HyA-GL). Efficacy over 14 weeks was evaluated using 2 mm segmental femoral defects in skeletally mature female F344 rats, internally fixated using a 1.25 mm-thick polyetheretherketone plate. Empty defects failed to bridge but administration of rhBMP-2 using either CO or CHA scaffolds led to successful bridging, while using HyA-GL resulted in non-union. CHA scaffolds induced enhanced and stiffer new bone formation compared to both CO and HyA-GL scaffolds. Limited luminal remodeling occurred in both CO and CHA groups. Taken together, this study has determined that a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of rhBMP-2 compared to collagen-only scaffolds routinely used in standard clinical practice.


AO Foundation

European Research Council under the European Community’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under ERC grant agreement no. 788753 (ReCaP)



The original article is available at

Published Citation

Lackington WA. et al. Incorporation of hydroxyapatite into collagen scaffolds enhances the therapeutic efficacy. Mater Today Commun. 2021;29:102933

Publication Date

28 October 2021


  • Amber (Advanced Material & Bioengineering Research) Centre
  • Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine
  • Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG)

Research Area

  • Immunity, Infection and Inflammation
  • Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine


Elsevier BV


  • Accepted Version (Postprint)