MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise.
MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of non-coding, 19-25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01). We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.
This research was supported by a Science Foundation Ireland Technology and Innovation Development Award (12/TIDA/B2387) and the RCSI PLASMIR-X Seed Fund award to Jochen H. M. Prehn and Maria M. Byrne, and a Health Professional Fellowship awarded from the Health Research Board to Siobhán Bacon (HPF-2013-479).
CommentsThis article is also available at http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4425/6/2/399
Published CitationBacon S, Engelbrecht B, Schmid J, Pfeiffer S, Gallagher R, McCarthy A, Burke M, Concannon C, Prehn JH, Byrne MM. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise. Genes (Basel). 2015;6(2):399-416.
- Centre for Systems Medicine
- Physiology and Medical Physics