Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Nanomodulation of Macrophages in Multiple Sclerosis..pdf (633.67 kB)

Nanomodulation of Macrophages in Multiple Sclerosis.

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Version 2 2022-03-03, 12:52
Version 1 2019-11-22, 16:18
journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-03, 12:52 authored by Frances NallyFrances Nally, Chiara De SantiChiara De Santi, Claire McCoy
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disease primarily affecting young adults. Despite an unclear causal factor, symptoms and pathology arise from the infiltration of peripheral immune cells across the blood brain barrier. Accounting for the largest fraction of this infiltrate, macrophages are functionally heterogeneous innate immune cells capable of adopting either a pro or an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a phenomenon dependent upon cytokine milieu in the CNS. This functional plasticity is of key relevance in MS, where the pro-inflammatory state dominates the early stage, instructing demyelination and axonal loss while the later anti-inflammatory state holds a key role in promoting tissue repair and regeneration in later remission. This review highlights a potential therapeutic benefit of modulating macrophage polarisation to harness the anti-inflammatory and reparative state in MS. Here, we outline the role of macrophages in MS and look at the role of current FDA approved therapeutics in macrophage polarisation. Moreover, we explore the potential of particulate carriers as a novel strategy to manipulate polarisation states in macrophages, whilst examining how optimising macrophage uptake via nanoparticle size and functionalisation could offer a novel therapeutic approach for MS.


Science Foundation Ireland, grant number 16/FRL/3855. The Irish Research Council, grant number GOIPD/2018/875.



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Published Citation

Nally FK, De Santi C, McCoy CE. Nanomodulation of Macrophages in Multiple Sclerosis. Cells. 2019;8(6):543

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  • School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences