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Patient's spirituality perspectives at the end of life: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-09-14, 16:33 authored by Barbara ClyneBarbara Clyne, Sinéad M. O'Neill, Daniel Nuzum, Michelle O'Neill, James LarkinJames Larkin, Mairin Ryan, Susan SmithSusan Smith
Background: Understanding patient perceptions of their spiritual needs when approaching the end of life is essential to support the delivery of patient-centred care.
Aim: To conduct a qualitative evidence synthesis on spirituality and spiritual care needs at the end of life in all healthcare settings from the patients' perspective.
Design: Studies were included where they were primary qualitative studies exploring spirituality in patients with a life expectancy of 12 months or less in any setting. Two reviewers independently screened titles, extracted data and conducted methodological quality appraisal. A thematic synthesis was conducted. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) - Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) was used to summarise the certainty of the evidence.
Data sources: Six databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts) were searched from inception up to January 2019.
Results: Fifty papers (42 unique datasets), incorporating data from 710 patients were included. Studies recruited from a mix of inpatient, outpatient, hospice and community settings across 12 different countries. Three overarching themes were generated: the concept of spirituality, spiritual needs and distress, and spiritual care resources. Relationships were an intrinsic component of spirituality.
Conclusion: Meeting patients' spiritual needs is an integral part of end-of-life care. This work emphasises that supporting relationships should be a central focus of spiritual care for patients at the end of life.


Health Research Board (HRB-CICER-2016-1871)



This article has been accepted for publication in BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care, 2019 following peer review, and the Version of Record can be accessed online at

Published Citation

Clyne B, O’Neill SM, Nuzum D, O’Neill M, Larkin J, Ryan M, Smith S. Patients’ spirituality perspectives at the end of life: a qualitative evidence synthesis. BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care. 2019; Nov 26: bmjspcare-2019-00216.

Publication Date


PubMed ID



  • General Practice
  • HRB Centre for Primary Care Research

Research Area

  • Population Health and Health Services




  • Accepted Version (Postprint)