Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Peptides as 3D printable feedstocks....pdf (3.99 MB)

Peptides as 3D printable feedstocks: design strategies and emerging applications.

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-12-22, 09:28 authored by Robert MurphyRobert Murphy, Ronnie V Garcia, Andreas HeiseAndreas Heise, Craig J Hawker
Peptide hydrogels have proven to be a critical building block for a range of scientific applications due to their high water capacity, tunable mechanical properties, and modular synthetic design. Particular interest stems from the biomedical realm due to their inherent biomimetic structure and biocompatibility, which has prompted their use as 3D printable matrices. In this review, we will discuss the two main strategies for preparing peptide hydrogels using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and N-carboxyanhydride ring opening polymerization (NCA ROP) to construct the linear chains followed by gelation through either non-covalent interactions or covalent crosslinking using light or enzymes as a trigger. These synthetic approaches are summarized with a view to the applicability of hydrogel building blocks in 3D printing and representative examples illustrating the future outlook and possible research directions for the field.


U.S. Army Research Office under Cooperative Agreement W911NF-19–2–0026

Contract Number W911NF-19-D-0001 for the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies

European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 842599

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship



The original article is available at

Published Citation

Murphy R, Garcia RV, Heise A, Hawker CJ. Peptides as 3D printable feedstocks: design strategies and emerging applications. Progress in Polymer Science. 2022;124:101487

Publication Date

28 November 2021


  • Amber (Advanced Material & Bioengineering Research) Centre
  • Chemistry
  • CURAM Centre for Research in Medical Devices

Research Area

  • Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine


Elsevier BV


  • Published Version (Version of Record)