Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Recommendations for Determining the Validity of Consumer Wearables and Smartphones for the Estimation of Energy Expenditure....pdf (1.06 MB)

Recommendations for determining the validity of consumer wearables and smartphones for the estimation of energy expenditure: expert statement and checklist of the INTERLIVE network

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-06-22, 16:19 authored by Rob ArgentRob Argent, Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Julie Stang, Jakob Tarp, Francisco B Ortega, Pablo Molina-Garcia, Moritz Schumann, Wilhelm Bloch, Sulin Cheng, Anders Grøntved, Jan Christian Brønd, Ulf Ekelund, Luis B Sardinha, Brian Caulfield

Background: Consumer wearables and smartphone devices commonly offer an estimate of energy expenditure (EE) to assist in the objective monitoring of physical activity to the general population. Alongside consumers, healthcare professionals and researchers are seeking to utilise these devices for the monitoring of training and improving human health. However, the methods of validation and reporting of EE estimation in these devices lacks rigour, negatively impacting on the ability to make comparisons between devices and provide transparent accuracy.

Objectives: The Towards Intelligent Health and Well-Being Network of Physical Activity Assessment (INTERLIVE) is a joint European initiative of six universities and one industrial partner. The network was founded in 2019 and strives towards developing best-practice recommendations for evaluating the validity of consumer wearables and smartphones. This expert statement presents a best-practice validation protocol for consumer wearables and smartphones in the estimation of EE.

Methods: The recommendations were developed through (1) a systematic literature review; (2) an unstructured review of the wider literature discussing the potential factors that may introduce bias during validation studies; and (3) evidence-informed expert opinions from members of the INTERLIVE network.

Results: The systematic literature review process identified 1645 potential articles, of which 62 were deemed eligible for the final dataset. Based on these studies and the wider literature search, a validation framework is proposed encompassing six key domains for validation: the target population, criterion measure, index measure, testing conditions, data processing and the statistical analysis.

Conclusions: The INTERLIVE network recommends that the proposed protocol, and checklists provided, are used to standardise the testing and reporting of the validation of any consumer wearable or smartphone device to estimate EE. This in turn will maximise the potential utility of these technologies for clinicians, researchers, consumers, and manufacturers/developers, while ensuring transparency, comparability, and replicability in validation.

Trial registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42021223508.


IReL Consortium

Huawei Technologies, Finland

Science Foundation Ireland (12/RC/2289_P2)

MINECO/FEDER (DEP2016‐79512‐R)

University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigación 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Excellence

Research Council of Norway (249932/ F20)

European Research Council Grant (grant number 716657)

Scientific Excellence Unit on Exercise and Health (UCEES)

Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades

European Regional Development Funds (ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR)



The original article is available at

Published Citation

Argent R. et al. Recommendations for determining the validity of consumer wearables and smartphones for the estimation of energy expenditure: expert statement and checklist of the INTERLIVE network. Sports Med. 2022;52(8):1817-1832.

Publication Date

9 March 2022

PubMed ID



  • School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences

Research Area

  • Population Health and Health Services


Springer International


  • Published Version (Version of Record)