Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
2022 Garcia Gil Scientific Reports WATERSPOUTT Jerrycan Ethiopia.pdf (1.21 MB)

Solar water disinfection in large-volume containers: from the laboratory to the field. A case study in Tigray, Ethiopia

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-13, 11:37 authored by Ángela García-Gil, Rafael A García-Muñoz, Azahara Martínez-García, Maria Inmaculada Polo-López, Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun, Mekonen Teferi, Tsehaye Asmelash, Ronan ConroyRonan Conroy, Kevin McGuiganKevin McGuigan, Javier Marugán
The lack of safe drinking water affects communities in low-to-medium-income countries most. This barrier can be overcome by using sustainable point-of-use water treatments. Solar energy has been used to disinfect water for decades, and several efforts have been made to optimise the standard procedure of solar water disinfection (SODIS process). However, the Health Impact Assessment of implementing advanced technologies in the field is also a critical step in evaluating the success of the optimisation. This work reports a sustainable scaling-up of SODIS from standard 2 L bottles to 25 L transparent jerrycans (TJC) and a 12-month field implementation in four sites of Tigray in Ethiopia, where 80.5% of the population lives without reliable access to safe drinking water and whose initial baseline average rate of diarrhoeal disease in children under 5 years was 13.5%. The UVA dose required for 3-log reduction of E. coli was always lower than the minimum UVA daily dose received in Tigray (9411 ± 55 Wh/m2). Results confirmed a similar decrease in cases of diarrhoea in children in the implementation (25 L PET TJC) and control (2 L PET bottles) groups, supporting the feasibility of increasing the volume of the SODIS water containers to produce safer drinking water with a sustainable and user-friendly process.


European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme in the frame of the WATERSPOUTT H2020-Water-5c-2015 project (H2020 GA 688928) project.


Data Availability Statement

The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available in the Zenodo repository:


The original article is available at

Published Citation

García-Gil Á. et al. Solar water disinfection in large-volume containers: from the laboratory to the field. A case study in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):18933.

Publication Date

7 November 2022

PubMed ID



  • Data Science Centre
  • Physiology and Medical Physics

Research Area

  • Population Health and Health Services


Nature Publishing Group


  • Published Version (Version of Record)