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Vitamin D and preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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posted on 2024-01-29, 12:22 authored by Abdulla AlSubai, Muhammad Hadi Baqai, Hifza Agha, Neha Shankarlal, Syed Sarmad Javaid, Eshika Kumari Jesrani, Shalni Golani, Abdullah Akram, Faiza Qureshi, Shaheer Ahmed, Simran Saran

Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent pregnancy disorders, with a global incidence of 2%-8%. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is an essential mineral for human health; some studies suggest link between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia, while others offer contradictory findings. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationships between maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk of preeclampsia. In addition to this, our study also evaluates the effects of 25- hydroxyvitamin D supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia. Therefore, assessing 25- hydroxyvitamin D's potential as a possible intervention to lower the risk of preeclampsia.

Methods: The Medline database was queried from inception until July 2021 for randomized controlled trials and observational studies without any restrictions. The studies assessing the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia and the impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia were incorporated. The results were reported using a random-effects meta-analysis and the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant for the analysis.

Results: This analysis includes 34 papers, including 10 randomized controlled trials and 24 observational studies. According to our pooled analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.40-0.63; p = 0.00001), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (OR: 4.30; 95 % CI: 2.57-7.18; p < 0.00001, OR: 1.71; 95 % Cl: 1.27-2.32; p = 0.0005, OR 1.61; 95 % Cl: 1.21-2.16; p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Results suggest that 25-hydroxyvitamin D has a significant relationship with preeclampsia as confirmed by the findings that low maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations cause increased risk of preeclampsia while 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of preeclampsia. Our findings indicate that 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation can be used as a possible intervention strategy in preventing one of the most common causes of maternal mortality around the world, preeclampsia.


Data Availability Statement

All data included in this review has been cited and can be accessed online


The original article is available at

Published Citation

AlSubai A, et al. Vitamin D and preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. SAGE Open Med. 2023;11:20503121231212093.

Publication Date

22 November 2023

PubMed ID



  • Undergraduate Research


SAGE Publications Ltd,


  • Published Version (Version of Record)

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